In our day-to-day life we frequently use many electrical and electronic circuits and kits which are designed using embedded systems technology. The electrical and electronics engineering students and electronics and communications engineering students are required to design final year electronics projects to gain hands on experience with the real time embedded systems and also to fulfill the engineering graduation criteria. The engineering final year electronics projects are designed using embedded systems and applications. The computers, mobile phones, tablets, laptops, digital electronic systems, and other electrical and electronic gadgets are designed using embedded systems. So, let us know what is embedded system and applications of embedded systems.
What is Embedded System?
The electronic system which integrates the hardware circuitry with the software programming techniques for providing project solutions is called as embedded systems. By using this embedded system technology the complexity of the circuits can be reduced to a great extent which further reduces the cost and size. Embedded system was primarily developed by Charles Stark for reducing the size and weight of the project circuitry.
An embedded system is basically an electronic system that can be programmed or non-programmed to operate, organize, and perform single or multiple tasks based on the application. In the real time embedded systems, all the assembled units work together based on the program or set of rules or code embedded into the microcontroller. But, by using this microcontroller programming techniques only a limited range of problems can be solved.
Embedded Systems Hardware
Every electronic system consists of hardware circuitry, similarly, embedded system consists of hardware such as power supply kit, central processing unit, memory devices, timers, output circuits, serial communication ports, and system application specific circuit components & circuits.
Embedded Systems Software
An embedded system is integration of hardware and software, the software used in the embedded system is set of instructions which is termed as a program. The microprocessors or microcontrollers used in the hardware circuits of embedded systems are programmed to perform specific tasks by following the set of instructions. These programs are primarily written using any programming software like Proteus or Lab-view using any programming languages such as C or C++ or embedded C. Then, the program is dumped into the microprocessors or microcontrollers that are used in the embedded system circuits.
Embedded System Classification
Embedded systems are primarily classified into different types based on complexity of hardware & software and microcontroller (8 or 16 or 32-bit). Thus, based on the performance of the microcontroller, embedded systems are classified into three types such as:
- Small scale embedded systems
- Medium scale embedded systems
- Sophisticated embedded systems
Further, based on performance and functional requirements of the system embedded system classified into four types such as:
- Real time embedded systems
- Stand alone embedded systems
- Networked embedded systems
- Mobile embedded systems
Applications of Embedded Systems
Embedded systems find numerous applications in various fields such as digital electronics, telecommunications, computing network, smart cards, satellite systems, military defense system equipment, research system equipment, and so on. Let us discuss a few practical applications of embedded systems that are used in designing embedded projects as a part of engineering final year electronics projects.
IOT Based Energy Meter Reading Through Internet
Internet of Things-IOT based energy meter reading through the internet is an innovative application of real time embedded systems. Using this project you can avail the facility of displaying (in the format of chart and gauge) units of power consumed and the cost of consumption over the internet.
Digital energy meter is used for designing innovative embedded projects, this digital energy meter blinking LED will flash around 3200 times for one unit, this LED signal and microcontroller are interfaced using a light dependent resistor (LDR). Thus, whenever LED flashes, this blinking will activate the LDR sensor, that sends an interrupt signal to the microcontroller for each flash of LED. Based on the interrupts received by the microcontroller, it will display the reading of energy meter on an LCD display which is interfaced it.
This project consists of a GSM modem which is interfaced to the microcontroller using RS232 link and level shifter IC. The reading of energy meter can be sent to the GSM modem, SIM used in this GSM modem is enabled with internet facility. Thus, the energy meter can be directly transmitted to a specific web page to display it over the internet and view in the format of graphical representation from anywhere in the world.
Engineering students are fascinated to design more innovative embedded projects as their final year electronics projects. Thus, here we are providing a list of real time electronics projects on embedded systems.
- Internet (IOT) of Things based underground cable fault distance display using GSM
- Electronic passport system using smart card
- Patient body temperature monitoring remotely using Internet of Things (IOT)
- Power saver for street light using high sensitive LDR managed by Arduino
- GSM based prepaid energy meter
- Automatic meter reading system using Zigbee
- A notice board display system using voice commands using an Android phone
- Home automation using voice commands
- Solar based electric fencing system to deter cattle
Are you an engineering student or electronics hobbyist, do you have any innovative ideas to implement embedded projects practically? Then, you are appreciated to post your ideas in the comments section below. So, that let us and other readers also try to provide project solutions for your ideas.